Comet C/2022 E3 (ZTF)

This comet was discovered in March 2022 by the Zwicky Transient Facility telescope on Palomar Mountain in California. Known in the media as the “green comet,” ZTF orbits the sun with a period of 50,000 years. Depending upon its interaction with the sun this time around, it may make another appearance in the year 52,023 (or thereabouts) or it may get thrown out of the solar system altogether.

The green color is due to the light emitted by diatomic carbon atoms that are excited by ultraviolet light from the sun.

Jupiter Saturn Conjunction

Jupiter and Saturn drew to within 1/10th of a degree in the sky on December 21, 2020. On that day it was completely cloudy here on Whidbey Island. But on the following night, Dec 22 we noticed a break in the clouds in the west just above the horizon. We drove over to the bluff overlooking Lagoon Point for a view. Using a hand-held Canon DSLR with a 300mm lens, I captured this photo. Two moons of Jupiter, Europa and Ganymede are just barely visible in the frame.

NEOWISE on its way out

The NEOWISE comet is now higher in the west in the evening sky. It’s on its way to the outer reaches of the solar system and won’t return for over 6,000 years. The comet is growing more faint and as it moves farther from Earth. It was high enough in the sky to observe from the observatory last night and photographed through the 4″ refractor telescope.


Capturing a Spectrum of NEOWISE

On Sunday evening, July 19 the sky from Whidbey Island was clear all the way down to the horizon, so we had an excellent opportunity to take a few more images of comet NEOWISE. We headed for the parking lot at Greenbank Farm where we had a good view of the northwestern sky. It would have been nice if the parking lot lights had been off, but since the camera was pointing in the opposite direction, it wasn’t too much of a problem.  We had good luck leveling the telescope mount and aligning it with the celestial pole by viewing the North Star through the polar scope. We used Arcturus for a quick one-star alignment. The mount (iOptron CEM25) was tracking very well.

This time I remembered to bring along my intervalometer so I could take exposures longer than 30 seconds. The image below is the result of 13 minutes of total exposure time (5 frames each of 90s, 45s, 15s, 5s and 2s). I had the idea of using the shorter exposures to avoid over-exposing the comet nucleus, but that turned out not to be much of an issue.


We easily see the bright head or ‘coma’ and the fanned out dust tail. Within the coma is the comet nucleus, a small (~ 5km) clump of rock, dust, water ice and frozen gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia, which can be described as a “dirty snowball” or an “icy dirtball”. The bright coma we see is much larger. From this photo I estimate the coma to be about 230,000 kilometers wide.

If you look carefully, you may see another tail from the coma—straight and angled up slightly relative to the dust tail. This second tail is a result of ionized gas emanating from the nucleus of the comet. Both tails are the result of material coming off of the nucleus. Dust particles drift away and are spread out by pressure from sunlight, producing the prominent dust tail. Various gases are ionized by ultraviolet light from the sun. Being much smaller than dust particles, these ionized atoms and molecules are more strongly affected by sunlight pressure and are propelled along a straighter trajectory.

My estimate of the size of the coma is based on the field of view of my camera and lens. The width of the coma in the image is about 102 pixels, or 2.8% the height of the frame (3648 pixels). The field of view of my telephoto lens is 274 arc-minutes high, so the coma subtends an angle of 2.8% of 274 arc-minutes, or 0.00223 radians. According to NASA, the NEOWISE comet is about 100 million kilometers from Earth. So the width of the coma must be (0.00223)x(100,000,000 km) = 230,000 km, compared to the diameter of the nucleus of only 5 km.

We were in good shape for taking long exposures so we decided to try our luck capturing a spectrum of the comet nucleus. For this, I attached a Star Analyzer 100 diffraction grating onto the front of the telephoto lens.

Star Analyser 100
Star Analyser 100 diffraction grating (Paton Hawksley, UK) attached to a 300mm lens on a Canon 6D DSLR.

The diffraction grating separates the light into its constituent colors. With the Star Analyser in place, the aperture of the lens is reduced to about 10%, so capturing spectra really needs longer exposures, but I settled for a total exposure of 12 minutes.

In the image below, you see what the comet looks like through the diffraction grating. The comet is on the left (its tail streaming upward). The rainbow-colored line to the right is the spectrum of the coma, while the blended colors are from light from the tail. Since the coma is relatively compact, its spectrum is more distinct than for the tail. You can see brightening in the blue, green and yellow parts of the spectrum.

Note the spectra of other stars that happen to be in the field of view.

comet through diffraction grating
Five-minute exposure of comet NEOWISE through Star Analyser 100

As a reference, I also captured a spectrum of Vega which was in a good position, almost directly overhead. It is so bright, it doesn’t require a very long exposure. A 9-second exposure was sufficient. Vega is a good reference because it has prominent hydrogen absorption lines, especially the hydrogen beta line at 4861 Angstroms.

To analyze the spectra, I rotated the images to make them horizontal and cropped them.

Cropped spectrum of NEOWISE (5-min exposure)

Cropped spectrum of Vega (9-second exposure)

The next step was to open the Vega spectrum in the spectral analysis program RSpec and calibrate it by identifying the hydrogen beta line. In this way I could associate wavelengths in Angstroms with pixel values along the x-axis. I got a scale factor of 2.23 Angstroms per pixel.

Vega profile
Light intensity vs wavelength for Vega. Peak at the far left corresponds to the undiffracted (0th order) image of Vega.

Next, by opening the spectrum of NEOWISE and using the previously determined scale in Angstroms, we have a profile for the comet.

NEOWISE profile
Spectrum profile for comet NEOWISE

Note that there is considerably more noise in the profile (random vertical variation) due to the fact that the comet is so much dimmer than Vega.

The camera is only sensitive to wavelengths between about 4000 and 7000 Angstroms, so we cropped the plot outside to within  this range to produce the following.

I am not certain that I have identified the peaks correctly, but wavelengths for C2 and CN were listed in the RSpec software as typical in comets. ‘C2’ refers to neutral carbon diatomic molecules; ‘(CN)2’ refers to cyanogen. The closest I could find for an element with an emission around 5577 Angstroms was the singly-ionized state of the oxygen atom, which I’ve labeled as ‘OI”. Not sure whether that makes any sense, however. I would invite suggestions from those who know more about spectra than I do.

Comet NEOWISE in the evening

On Tuesday evening, 2020 we drove to Coupeville and set up the camera near some picnic tables by the wharf, overlooking Penn Cove. At 10:30 pm, it was still too bright to make out the comet, but by 11:00 another person spotted it with binoculars. We had the tracking mount aligned, but slewing to the comet was challenging due to its position low in the north. With the help of another couple, we finally got the comet in the frame of the camera and took several shots. Here is the result of combining four 30-second exposures.


Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE)

Comet C/2020 F3 was discovered in March 2020 by the NASA spacecraft Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In 2013 its mission was focused on near-Earth objects, or NEOs.

In the early morning of July 11, 2020 the comet was visible low in the sky to the northeast. From the Greenbank Farm, we spotted it about 3° above the horizon at 4:00 am. There was an airliner contrail cutting through the comet’s tail, but ten minutes later we had a relatively unobstructed view of the comet.

Photographed through a 300mm lens on a Canon 6D, ISO 400, exposures of 30s and 15s respectively.

Comet Neowise with airliner contrail


Comet Neowise



NGC 4565, the Needle Galaxy

I captured this galaxy the night of May 11-12, 2018. NGC 4565 is a spiral galaxy more luminous than the Andromeda Galaxy but roughly twenty times farther away (30-50 million light-years). We see it edge-on, giving it a needle-like appearance. In the lower right corner of the frame there is another spiral galaxy, NGC 4562.

This image is the result of combining 63 4-minute exposures for a total exposure time of 4 hr 12 min.

NGC 6946, the ‘Fireworks Galaxy’

NGC 6946, the ‘Fireworks Galaxy’ has been the site of 10 supernovae recorded over the past 100 years. It is a spiral galaxy 22.5 million light-years away, located between the constellations Cepheus and Cygnus.

This image is the result of stacking 61 3-minute exposures with a Canon 6D camera on a Takahashi Mewlon 250 telescope at f/12. Recorded the night of May 7-8, 2018.

Messier 81, Bode’s Galaxy

Messier 81, also known as NGC 3031, is a spiral galaxy. It is the largest of a group of 34 galaxies in Ursa Major, including its near neighbor M82, ‘merely’ 300,000 light-years away. Some scientists believe that the high rate of star formation in M82 was caused by a close encounter with M81 some 500 million years ago which stirred up a lot of dust and gas in the neighboring galaxy.

This image was taken April 26, 2018 with a Canon 6D camera attached to a Takahashi Mewlon 250 telescope at f/12. Fifty-three frames of 2-minute exposures were combined, for a total exposure of 1 hr 46 minutes. DeepSkyStacker v 3.3.2 and Photoshop CC with Astronomy Tools from ProDigital Software were used to enhance the structure of the spiral arms.

Messier 82, or ‘Cigar galaxy’

M82M82, also known as NGC 3034 in the constellation Ursa Major is about 12 million light-years away. M82 is a prototypical example of a starburst galaxy, characterized by an exceptionally high rate of star formation.

This image was created by combining two hundred 2-minute exposures taken the night of April 25-26, 2018. The camera was a Canon 6D, mounted on a Takahashi Mewlon 250 at f/12.

Total Solar Eclipse 2017

We viewed the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017 from Prairie City, Oregon, about 5 miles from the centerline of the path of totality. This video includes a time-lapse sequence of the partial phases (about an hour-and-a-quarter real time into 20 seconds) and still frames of totality ( which lasted 2 minutes 9 seconds).

Sunspots are visible during the partial eclipse phases. The diamond ring and Baily’s Beads are visible just before totality. The corona and solar prominences can be seen during totality, and the bright star Regulus in the constellation Leo is visible to the left.

Images were captured using a Canon EOS 6D camera attached  to a Takahashi FSQ-106 telescope on an iOptron CEM25 mount. The camera was controlled by a Windows 10 PC running Eclipse Orchestrator Pro v. 3.7.2017/06/14 from Moonglow Technologies. Accurate timing and geographic location information were obtained using a Garmin GPS 18x USB device. The computer was connected to the camera using two cables: A camera interface cable, IFC-200U from Canon and a DSUSB shutter control adaptor from Shoestring Astronomy. A solar filter from Orion Telescopes & Binoculars was fitted over the aperture of the telescope during the partial phases.

Waning Crescent Moon

Waning-crescent-moonIn the early morning hours of Oct 5, just before closing down the observatory, I decided to try capturing the crescent moon while the seeing conditions were still good. Here is the result. Click to open a full-size image.

This image is a mosaic of three images: northern, mid-section and southern, each of which was created from several hundred frames of a 60-second video clip. Frames were sorted by quality, aligned and combined using Autostakkert!2 software by Emil Kraaikamp of the Netherlands.


M74 Spiral Galaxy


In his book, The Messier Objects, Stephan James O’Meara calls this galaxy ‘The Phantom,’ writing: “No object in the Messier catalogue has proven more troublesome, more elusive, more provocative to amateur astronomers than this giant spiral.” M74, also known as NGC 628, is a galaxy with 40 billion stars and a diameter of 97,000 light years. Compare this to our own Milky Way galaxy which has at least 100 billion stars and a diameter of 100,000 light years. While more diffuse than the Milky Way, M74 has a similar armed spiral structure.

I was drawn to trying to capture an image of M74 as I can imagine a sentient being on a planet around one of those stars looking up in their night sky and contemplating us in a galaxy 32 million light years away that looks not that much different.

This image is a combination of thirty 6-minute exposures on the night of October 4-5, 2015 through a Takahashi Mewlon 250 telescope operating at f/19.2 with a Canon 6D camera.

The Sun

Sun in H-alpha

This is my first successful image of the sun, taken through my new Coronado Personal Solar Telescope (PST). The PST uses a Hydrogen Alpha filter to block out all wavelengths except a narrow 0.5 Angstrom band (the spectrum of visible light ranges from 4,000 to 7,000 Angstroms). One advantage of using such a narrow bandwidth is that glowing hydrogen gas that moves toward us or away from us can be seen as a slight darkening or brightening relative to the background. For example, solar prominences are plumes of hydrogen that erupt from the surface of the sun. Seen edge on, they appear as dark ridges because the wavelength of light they emit is reduced slightly and consequently blocked by the H-alpha filter.

In this image, you can see dark “cracks” on the face of the sun that are actually prominences viewed edge-on. Prominences can also be seen on the limb (the edge of the sun’s disk) as red bumps on the right-had side of this image.

This image is not the result of a single snapshot, but rather the sum of over 1200 frames taken from a 2-minute video taken at 30 frames per second on October 1, 2015. Software is used to analyze the quality of each one of 3600 frames (120s X 30 fps = 3600), sort them by quality, then align and add together the best third and discard the rest.

Camera used was the Canon 6D shooting at 1/30th sec, ISO 6400 for 120 seconds. I then used PIPP (Planetary Imaging PreProcessor) to open the source .MOV file and AutoStakkert!2 to align, combine and sharpen the images. Original video was shot in monochrome. Red color to approximate what our eye sees when it views a Hydrogen Alpha source was added to the final result.

Compare the image above with a single frame of the video below. Note the vastly improved quality that results from aligning and combining hundreds of individual frames.

Single frame from video sequence, 1/30th sec exposure, ISO 6400.
Single frame from video sequence, 1/30th sec exposure, ISO 6400.